Curriculum / Guide to Belt Ranking

We will cover all of the material in class except for the knowledge. It is the student’s responsibility to memorize this on their own time. We do not hold formal testing in class. When a student feels they have mastered any component of the curriculum (forms, sparring, self-defense, knowledge, or board breaking) they may bring it to the teachers’ attention. For each component they will earn a stripe, or tip, on their belt. When all tips have been earned, we will see that they have achieved the knowledge and skills required to be awarded the next belt. Belts are awarded during regular class time.

WhiteYellowOrangeGreenBluePurpleBrownRedSenior RedBlack
White Belt- Requirements
9th Guep

This belt is the most unique of all the belts, for it marks the intent of an individual willing to learn. The will to learn a martial art is a special one, as it requires you to push yourself to new limits. This Will- that an individual begins to cultivate is represented in the White belt marking a transition in life. All other belts just compound this Will, making it stronger.

This newly developed Will power is essential for studying any other art and will most definitely help any individual within many other avenues of life. This outlook of new beginnings makes this belt the most unique of all. But the greatest thing about the White Belt is that it evokes humility. You must overcome your ego to truly learn something new.

Make sure you empty your cup, before seeking to fulfill it!

1- Techniques .
All techniques require repetitive conditioning, as the basis for power, and accuracy demand it. Practice the techniques you learn in a relaxed to slow pace so that your brain has an easier time communicating with your body. Speed can be confusing for the brain when learning new things.

2- Forms .
Forms are to help you understand the art of movement. They have been made to demonstrate a certain skillfulness of movement for each belt. Practice these slowly; just as you would the techniques, and remember that demonstration of form is not a race.

They are also a pattern of movement that is expressive of the power and agility that Taekwondo commands; and as such, many of the things learned in forms do not transfer to sparring or other activities of motion that require contact.

3- Self-defense .
This concept is at the heart of all Martial arts; and like all others, Taekwondo seeks to defend instead of destroy. The ideas learned here will go with you throughout the rest of your life. These techniques help to provide confidence within the individual that they can truly protect themselves from malicious harm.

Practice these movements with care when working with a partner as many of these actions can cause serious injury. And as with all other things taught here; work it slowly at first to gain proper control of your technique and your self-control.

4- Breaking .
A formidable demonstration of the techniques learned; this activity provides you a chance to prove to yourself that you have truly mastered a technique. The required force to break boards is all within the technique learned.

5- Knowledge .
All of the things learned have been passed down, and recorded through history. To study something with such gravity without the knowledge behind it only gives the student a partial education in the Arts.

Knowing why things are- the way they are- teaches critical thinking. In all walks of life, Knowledge is power; the Martial Arts are no different. You will learn about Taekwondo, its history and the history of other Arts to help widen your scope of respect.

You will also learn about the religions and philosophies that played a part in the development of the arts. We do not seek to promote any religion or belief, only to educate you in the beliefs of the practitioners of these styles as these beliefs served to cultivate and strengthen the arts in those times. History and religion cannot be separated as religion has often been the driving force behind the actions and development of civilizations.

Yellow Belt- Requirements
8th Guep

1- Techniques
Legs
Front Kick
Roundhouse Kick
Side Kick
Hook Kick
Axe Kick

Hands
Jab
Cross
Hook (Classic Boxing Style)
Knife Hand
Ridge Hand

Blocks
Low Block (Forms- Not in Sparring)
Middle Block
High Block
Shield Block
Parry (Straight punches, Hooks)
Palm Heel Block (Roundhouse Kicks)

Stances
Attention (Cherriyut)
Ready (Joon Bi)
Front Stance
Back Stance
Horse Stance
Fighting Stance (Base Stance)

Concepts
Circling
Pushing (Not shoving; There is an Art to it)

Combinations
Jab, Jab, Cross
Jab, Cross, Roundhouse Kick
Front Kick, Roundhouse Kick, and Side Kick (This is all done from the same leg without it touching the ground)
Jab, Cross, Lead Hook, Lead Knife hand

2- Forms (Hyung)
Chon Ji
Chon Ji means heaven and earth. In the orient, it is interpreted as the creation of the world or the beginning of human history, therefore it is the initial Hyung practiced by the beginner. It is also a crater lake named Heaven Lake on the border between China and North Korea.

This pattern consists of two similar parts, one represents the heaven, and the other represents the earth. Diagram and number of movements: Chon Ji has 19 movements and its diagram is a plus “+” sign.

3- Self-defense .
Wrist Grabs
Stability Drills
Vital Points
Front, Back, and Side break falls.

4- Breaking .
Legs- Reverse Front Kick with Heel

5- Knowledge .
1-Taekwondo means the way of hand and foot and it comes from a Peninsula called Korea.

2-Karate means way of the empty hand and it comes from an island nation called Japan.

3-Taekwondo is heavily influenced by Karate due to Japan ruling Korea for around 30 years. Japan’s rule of Korea ended after WWII in 1945. Taekwondo was founded in 1959; making this art 58 years old- give or take, as of 2017. It is characterized by its emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, and fast kicking techniques.

4-Ancient Korea was divided into 3 kingdoms and these kingdoms eventually became unified under one banner. The names of these kingdoms are:
-Goguryeo (Go-Gah-rye-i-o) was the most advanced, and likely the first established, of the three kingdoms. It eventually became the largest of the three kingdoms and the most militaristic

-Baekje was founded by two sons of the founder of Goguryeo who left to establish Baekje. It was a great Naval power, dominating the seas around the Korean peninsula.

-Silla was likely the last of the three kingdoms to establish a centralized government. Silla however was the earliest-founded and remained the smallest and weakest of the 3 for some time. It eventually used cunning diplomatic means to make pacts and alliances with the other more powerful Korean kingdoms, and eventually Tang China.

5-Tenants of Taekwondo- Courtesy, Integrity, Perseverance, Self-Control, Indomitable Spirit
Courtesy– the showing of politeness in one’s attitude and behavior toward others
Integrity– the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles; moral uprightness
Perseverance– steadfastness in doing something despite difficulty or delay in achieving success
Self-Control– the ability to control oneself, in particular one’s emotions and desires or the expression of them in one’s behavior, especially in difficult situations
Indomitable Spirit- a personality that is impossible to subdue or defeat

6- Commando Krav Maga founded by Moni Aizik who fought in an elite unit of the Israeli military during the Yom Kippur war in 1973. It is not a traditional or sports based martial art. There are no competitions, rules, or regulations. Instead, it is a reality based system designed for the primary goal of survival.

This battlefield combat system was taught by Imi Lichtenfeld one of the original Krav Maga instructors, is considered to be the founder of Krav Maga. Krav=fighting, Maga=contact. Krav Maga=contact fighting.

After the war Moni Aizik began experimenting with the traditional Krav Maga tecniques, which led to his development of what we now practice. In developing this system, he kept in mind that moves requiring more than two gross motor skills would rarely work under stress. He recognized that you cannot rely on strength because there is always someone stronger than you. He also stresses that it is much more realistic to train with dynamic, non-cooperative attackers than static, cooperative attackers. We fight how we train; therefore we practice pressure testing, or surprise attacks.

Combat in the streets is completely unpredictable. There are no rules. There are no referees to stop the fight. There is no honor code, so anything can happen. The attacker may have a gun or knife, or have friends who also attack you. Tactics and techniques are based solely on survival. The goal is to engage the enemy only if there is no other choice, but if you must- then exploit his/her weaknesses to create maximum damage as quickly as possible. Then rapidly disengage before a weapon is introduced or his/her friends decide to jump in.

This is the concept of maximum damage, minimum time.

In Krav Maga, we train to adapt quickly to a changing environment. Adaptation is crucial so we consider the what ifs:
What if the attacker is bigger, stronger, or faster?
What if he moves from one attack to another?
What if his friends jump in?
What if he is carrying a weapon?
By internalizing the “what if” mentality, you will develop the proper mindset to always prepare for the worst.
Ground survival is practiced, not ground fighting. If the fight goes to the ground, it can be fatal. CKM practices getting up and away as quickly as possible. The goal is to disengage safely rather than trying to punish the attacker.

Orange Belt -Requirements
7th Guep

1- Techniques .
Legs
Thrust Kick
Thai Kick
Skipping/Stepping Front, Roundhouse, Hook, and Side Kicks
Spinning Back Kick
Crescent Kicks (Inside and Outside)

Hands
Stepping Jab/Speed Jab
Wide (Thai Style) Hook
Uppercut
Palm Strike
Back Fist

Blocks
Knife Hand Block
Double Forearm Block
Open Hand Middle Block
Inside/Outside Block (Sparring Block)

Concepts
Shield Block to Thrust Kick or to Jab, Cross (Turn a defensive Block into an Offensive Technique)
Movement within Fighting Stance (Forward, Backward, Sideways, Circling)

Clinching fundamentals
The Clinch (aka, Plum, Double Collar Tie)
Movement in the Clinch (Forward, Backward, Side/Spin)
3 Clinch Escapes (Chin Lead, Shoulder Shift, Guard Break)

Combinations
Jab, Cross, Thai Kick
Front Thrust Kick, Jab, Cross, Thai Kick Roundhouse, Back Kick
Roundhouse, Hook, and Side Kick( All with one leg without touching the ground)
Front Thrust, Shield Block, and Thai Kick (This is all done from the same leg without it touching the ground)
Cross, Lead Uppercut, Cross

2- Forms .
Dan Gun
Dan Gun is named after Dan Gun, the legendary founder of Korea in 2333 B.C.
Dangun Wanggeom or Tangun was the legendary founder of Gojoseon, the first ever Korean kingdom, around present-day Liaoning, Manchuria, and the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. His grandfather Hwanin was the “Lord of Heaven” and he had a son named Hwanung who wanted to live on earth. So he was granted 3000 followers and descended onto the Baekdu Mountains where he founded Sinsi or “City of God”. Hwanung instituted laws and moral codes and taught humans various things.

One day a tiger and a bear prayed to Hwanung that they might become human. Upon hearing their prayers, Hwanung prescribed a task to which only the Bear was able to complete. For this the bear was turned into a woman named Ungnyeo. She was grateful but still without a husband; so Hwanung decided to make her his wife- and soon after she gave birth to Dangun. He ascended to the throne, built the walled city of Asadal (Morning Land/Mountain) situated near Pyongyang and called the kingdom Joseon aka Gojoseon.”

Consisting of 21 movements; all the punches in Dan-Gun are high section (at eye level), symbolizing Dangun scaling a mountain.

3- Self-defense .
Choke Defense
Lat Release and Vital Points
Forward Roll
Backward Roll
Side Roll
Cartwheel

4- Breaking .
Legs-Step in Side Kick

5- Knowledge .
1-General Choi Hong Hi- is regarded by many as the ‘Founder of Taekwondo’—most often by International Taekwon-Do Federation (ITF) organizations. He studied Taek Kyon and Shotokan karate. Choi combined elements of Taekkyeon and Karate to develop a martial art that he called “Taekwon-Do” which means “foot, hand, the way” or “the way of hand and foot”. Choi was born and died in what is now North Korea.

2-Korea has a Communist North and a South Republic due to the agreement between China (which backed the North and the US (which backed the South) after the Korean War.

3-This issue led to General Choi Hong Hi’s ostracism by others in the Taekwondo community as they were against his wish to teach this style to those in his homeland of North Korea.

4-The Original Masters of Taekwon-Do -is a group of twelve South Korean martial art masters assembled by the Korea Taekwon-Do Association (KTA) in the early 1960s to promote the newly established art of taekwondo.
From this Organization comes The World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) organizations, portray Choi as either an unimportant or as dishonorable.

5-Thailand is a country in Asia that is southeast of Korea. It was once known as Siam. From it comes the Art of Muay Thai.

6-Muay Thai is known as “the art of eight limbs” because it is characterized by the combined use of fists, elbows, knees, shins, which makes a full-contact fighter very efficient.
Muay Thai became widespread internationally in the twentieth century, when practitioners defeated notable practitioners of other martial arts. It is a blend of Hard and Soft techniques.

7- Hard and Soft Arts/Techniques
A hard technique meets force with force, either with a linear, head-on force-blocking technique, or by diagonally cutting the strike with one’s force; thus interrupting the flow of attack. Although hard techniques require greater strength to be successful, it is the mechanics of the technique that accomplish the defense. They are affected by footwork and skeletal alignment. For the most part, hard techniques are direct.

Examples are:
A Taekwondo block aimed to break or halt the aggressor’s arm.
A Muay Thai shield block with the shin; to break the leg of the aggressor’s leg.

The goal of the soft technique is deflecting the attacker’s force to his or her disadvantage, with the defender exerting as little force as possible. With a soft technique, the defender uses the attacker’s force and momentum against him or her, by leading the attack(er) in a direction to where the defender will be advantageously positioned and the attacker off balance; a seamless movement then effects the appropriate soft technique.
The defender leads the attack by redirecting the attacker’s forces against him or her, or away from the defender — instead of meeting the attack with a block.

The mechanics of soft technique defenses usually are circular: Yielding is meeting the force with no resistance, like a projectile glancing off a surface without damaging. The soft technique usually is applied when the attacker is off-balance, thus the defender achieves the “maximum efficiency”.

Often techniques such as throws, armlocks, etc, might resemble hard martial art techniques, yet are distinct because their application requires minimal force.

Green Belt -Requirements
6th Guep

1- Techniques .
Legs
Spinning Hook/Wheel (High and Low)
Spinning Thai/Crescent Kick
Tornado Kick (Instep, and Shin)
Buckling Thai kick to the Leg
Knee Strikes (Straight, Diagonal, and Curving)
Skipping Axe Kick
Downward Thai Kick (aka Brazilian Kick)
Launching Thrust Kick (From Rear Leg)

Hands
Hammer Fist
Spinning Back Fist/Horizontal and Downward
Choke Strike
Overhand (Haymaker)
Open Hand Palm Strikes (Mimics Punching Techniques- Palm Jab directed up or Rotated, Cross Palm, Palm Uppercut)

Blocks
Single Forearm Block
Wedging Block
Slipping, Weaving, Bobbing
Kick Catching and Jamming
Stop Kick

Stances
Counter Stance
Side Stance / Cross Blocking Stance
Cat Stance

Clinching Techniques
Clinching Knee Strikes- All 3 knees
Throwing From the Clinch
Defense from Knee Strikes (Cross Block, Passing Block and Hip closing)

Concepts
Jeonjin Steps: Forward, Forward, Forward, Back spin
Body Checking

Combinations
Jab, Cross, Lead-Hook, Buckling Thai kick
Front Axe Kick, Jab, Cross, Rear Thrust Kick Lead Roundhouse, Hook (Same Side)
Jab, Cross, Clinch, Knee (in Clinch), Throw

2- Forms .
Dosan
Dosan is the pseudonym (pen name) of the patriot Ahn Chang Ho (1876-1938) who devoted his entire life to furthering the education of Korea and helping the Korean Independence Movement. This man, who converted to Christianity as a teenager, is one of the key moral and philosophical leaders of Korea during the 20th century. He established the Shinminhoe (New Korea Society) when he returned to Korea from the US in 1907. It was the most important organization to fight the Japanese occupation of Korea.

In the turmoil immediately before and during the Japanese occupation of Korea, he called for the moral and spiritual renewal of the Korean people through education as one of the important components in their struggle for independence and building a democratic society. He died under Japanese custody at a hospital after receiving years of harsh torture and inhumane imprisonment for speaking out against the Empire. It is said that the Japanese ground up glass and put it in his food to hurry his death along.

The 24 movements of this Hyung represent his entire life, which he devoted to furthering education in Korea and the Korean independence movement.

3- Self-defense
Defense from Bear Hugs over and under arms
Dive Rolls
One Handed Cartwheels

4- Breaking
Legs- Skipping Side Kick
Hands- Hammer Fist

5- Knowledge
1-Taekkyeon is a tradition Korean art from the Joseon Dynasty (Choson/chosun). It was known for its fluid footwork that was known as Pum Balgi which means Stepping on Triangles. This was one of the Arts that Gen Choi was proficient in, and it undoubtedly gives Taekwondo its distinction from Shotokan Karate.

2-The Joseon dynasty lasted for 500 years and ended in 1897. Korea then became the Korean Empire for a short time until 1910 when Japan took it over, making it a puppet nation. This Takeover is what made Taekkyeon and other ancient Korean arts a secret teaching, as the Japanese made it so that only their arts like Karate and Aikido could be taught.

3-Original Masters of Taekwon-Do –included the nine Kwans (clans) all having distinct styles originating from Taekkyeon and other ancient Korean arts merged with Kung fu from china and the new forced teachings of Karate. Their teachings began shortly after 1946 after Japan surrendered, ending its occupation and WWII. They were led by General Choi Hong Hi and others forming the original masters, who in the 60’s, set out to establish Taekwondo after seeing its development throughout the 40’s and 50’s under Japanese rule. Many of these men held senior positions in the newly founded ITF under Gen Choi, but several left over time. Most of the men settled in North America, while others settled in Europe or Australia.

In 1972, Choi went into exile in Canada after the South Korean government objected to his introduction of the sport into North Korea, and the South Korean government subsequently formed the WTF in 1973. He moved again in 1979 to North Korea where he was welcomed by the government and supported in his project of spreading Taekwondo to the world. He was remembered as the founder and champion of taekwondo. General Choi Hong Hi died of cancer on 15 June 2002 in Pyongyang, North Korea.

4- Morality- (“manner, character, proper behavior”) is the variation of intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper. Morality can be a set of standards or values taken from a code of conduct from a particular philosophy, religion, or culture, or it can derive from a standard that a person believes should be universal.

Morality may also be known as “goodness” or “rightness”.

An example is the Golden Rule, which states that: “One should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself.”

5- Ethics- (habit, “custom”) is also known as moral philosophy and it involves classifying, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

Ethics studies the questions “What is the best way for people to live?” and “What actions are right or wrong in particular circumstances?” In practice, ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality, by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime. In simpler terms it can be put as ‘the science of the ideal human character’ or ‘the science of moral duty’

These were the things that the patriot Ahn Chang Ho or Dosan lived by.

6-Budō is a Japanese term describing modern Japanese martial arts. Literally translated it means the “Martial Way”, and may be thought of as the “Way of War”. Budō is a compound of the root bu meaning “war” or “martial”; and dō ; tao in Chinese, meaning “path” or “way”.

Dō signifies a “way of life”, and in the Japanese context, it is an experience. In this sense practicing (the way of life) is the normal way of life to verify the power of the discipline cultivated through a given art form.
Modern budō has no external enemy, only the internal enemy, one’s ego that must be fought.

Examples of Budo:
Karate- “Empty hand way” developed in the Ryukyu Kingdom. It developed from the indigenous martial arts of Ryukyu Islands called te meaning “hand”- under the influence of Chinese martial arts, particularly Fujian White Crane.
Karate is now predominantly a striking art using punching, kicking, knee strikes, elbow strikes and open-hand techniques such as knife-hands, spear-hands, and palm-heel strikes. Historically, and in some modern styles, grappling, throws, joint locks, restraints, and vital-point strikes are also taught. A karate practitioner is called a karateka.

Judo- “Gentle way” created by Kanō Jigorō, It is generally categorized as a modern martial art which later evolved into a combat and Olympic sport. Its most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the objective is to either throw or takedown an opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue an opponent with a pin, or force an opponent to submit with a joint lock or a choke. Strikes and thrusts by hands and feet as well as weapons defenses are a part of judo, but only in pre-arranged forms aka “Kata” and are not allowed in judo competition or free practice A judo practitioner is called a judoka.

Aikido-“The way of harmonious spirit” was developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs. Ueshiba’s goal was to create an art that practitioners could use to defend themselves while also protecting their attacker from injury. Aikido techniques consist of entering and turning movements that redirect the momentum of an opponent’s attack, and a throw or joint lock that terminates the technique.

Bushido- “The way (or the moral) of the warrior “ is a term for the samurai way of life, loosely analogous to the concept of chivalry in Europe.

The “way” itself originates from the samurai moral values, most commonly stressing some combination of frugality, loyalty, martial arts mastery, and honor until death. Bushido was also influenced by Shinto and Zen Buddhism, allowing the violent existence of the samurai to be tempered by wisdom and serenity. Bushidō developed between the 16th and 20th centuries.

Iaido- “The way of mental presence and immediate reaction” emphasizes being aware and capable of quickly drawing the sword and responding to a sudden attack. Iaido is associated with the smooth, controlled movements of drawing the sword from its scabbard (or saya), striking or cutting an opponent, removing blood from the blade, and then replacing the sword in the scabbard. Practitioners of iaido are often referred to as iaidoka.

Kendo-“The sword way” is a modern Japanese martial art, which descended from swordsmanship (kenjutsu) and uses bamboo swords (shinai) and protective armour (bōgu). Today, it is widely practiced within Japan and many other nations across the world. Kenjutsu, which originated with the samurai class of feudal Japan, means “the method, or technique, of the sword.”

Similarly to budō, bujutsu is a compound of the roots bu and jutsu meaning “technique”. Thus, budō is translated as “martial way”, or “the way of war” while bujutsu is translated as “science of war” or “martial craft.” Budo and bujutsu have quite a delicate difference; whereas bujutsu only gives attention to the physical part of fighting (how to best defeat an enemy), budo also gives attention to the mind and how one should develop oneself.

8-Muay boran meaning “ancient boxing” or originally “Toi Muay” is a general name for the empty handed martial arts of Thailand prior to the introduction of modern rules in the 1930s, by King Rama VII. There are several old styles that were developed in various regions of Thailand that are now lumped into names such as “Muay Chaiya,” “Mae Mai Muay Thai,” “Muay Lopburi,” and “Muay Korat.” But regardless on which regional variant it was, all have been driven to near-extinction due to the popularity of the ring sport we now know as “Muay Thai” (or, “Thai Boxing”).

Muay boran was originally developed for self-defense and also taught to the Thai military for use in warfare. Matches between practitioners’ of the art then began to be held. These soon became an integral part of Thai culture with fights being held at festivals and fighters from the different areas of Thailand testing their styles against each other. Fighters began to wrap their hands and forearms in hemp rope which not only protected their fists from injury but also made their strikes more likely to cut an opponent. Muay boran fighters were highly respected and the best were enlisted into the King’s royal guard.

Blue Belt Requirements:
5th Guep

1- Techniques .
Legs
Double Front Kicks
Double Roundhouse Kicks
Cut/Teep Kick
Spinning Axe Kick
Flying Knee
Horizontal/Buffer Knee
Jumping or Flying Front/Thrust, Roundhouse/Thai, Side Kick, and Hook Kick

Hands
Spinning Cross, Hook and Uppercut
Knife and Ridge Hand (Clinch)
Elbow Techniques (Front/Cross- Thrust- Downward- Upper- Slashing- Rear- Side/Backhand)
Bolo Punch (Half Hook/ Half Uppercut)
Superman Punch

Blocks
Guarding Block
Elbow Block
Knife Hand Arm Trap

Concepts
Able to recognize and display Offensive, Defensive and Counter Stances/Actions
Counter off of Catching kicks (Push/Guide, Trip, Punch, Kick, and Combinations)

Clinching fundamentals
Proficient at Swimming/Sticky Hand Techniques, in and out of the Clinch
Clinch Defense (Head up, Arms out, and Cross Block)
Defensive Clinch Hook Strike
Defensive Horizontal Knee

Combinations-
Lead Roundhouse, Lead Hook, Cross, Thai Kick
Lead Elbow, Rear Knee
Knife Hand/Ridge Hand, Single Clinch, Knee

2- Form .
Won-Hyo
Won Hyo 617–686 CE was the noted monk, leading thinker, writer, and commentator who introduced Buddhism to the Silla Dynasty in the year 686 AD. With his life spanning the end of the Three Kingdoms of Korea and the beginning of Unified Silla, Wonhyo played a vital role in the reception and assimilation of the broad range of doctrinal Buddhist streams that flowed into the Korean peninsula at the time.

Wonhyo was famous for singing and dancing in the streets. While the Buddha discouraged such behaviors, his songs and dances were seen as upaya, (or skillful/expedient means), meant to help save all sentient beings. Among his most influential works were the commentaries he wrote on the writings within the text called Awakening of Faith and his expositions became the most influential text in the Korean tradition.

He spent the earlier part of his career as a monk. In 661 he and a close friend were traveling to China to study Buddhism further; when somewhere near Baekje, they were caught in a storm and took shelter in what they thought was a cave. In the night Wonhyo was thirsty, and reaching out; grabbing what he thought was a gourd, he drunk cool refreshing water from it, satisfying his thirst. When they woke in the morning they found that the cave was actually an ancient tomb littered with human skulls, and the vessel from which Wonhyo had drunk was a human skull full of foul water. Upon seeing this, Wonhyo vomited. Startled by the experience of believing that a gruesome liquid was a refreshing treat, Wonhyo was astonished at the power of the human mind to transform reality.
After this “One Mind” enlightenment experience, he abandoned his plan to go to China. He left the priesthood and turned to the spreading of the Buddhadharma as a layman.

Because of this aspect of his character, Wonhyo ended up becoming a popular folk hero in Korea. He had a son, Seol Chong, who is considered to be one of the great Confucian scholars of Silla.

In the words of the Awakening of Faith — which summarizes the essentials of Mahayana — self and world, mind and suchness, are integrally one. Everything is a carrier of that a priori enlightenment; all incipient enlightenment is predicated on it. The mystery of existence is, then, not, “How may we overcome alienation?” The challenge is, rather, “Why do we think we are lost in the first place?”

Diagram and number of movements: Won Hyo has 28 movements and its diagram is a capital “I”.

3- Self-defense .
Standing head locks
Pop ups (Conditional)
Elbow cartwheels

4- Breaking .
Legs- Reverse Side Kick
Hands- Palm Heel

5- Knowledge .
1-Taekwondo derives its roots directly from Taekkyeon and Karate, but before Taekkyeon it was called Subak/ Soo-Bak, and Gwonbeop/ Kwonbeop. There exists a competitive Korean folk wrestling called SSireum whose origins are with the time of Subak.

-Subak of Taekkyeon was a style that utilizes hand strikes, kicks, joint locks, and throws. The mountainous terrain of Goguryeo may have made its people’s legs strong. The word Seonbae is sometimes translated to mean “a man of virtue who never retreats from a fight” because it was the term used to signify a member of Koguryo’s warrior corps. Members of the Seonbae lived in groups and learned archery, Gakju (ancestor of Ssireum) and Subak (ancestor of Taekkyon), history, literature, and other liberal arts.

King Gwanggaeto the Great of Goguryeo is said by some accounts to have sent 50,000 Seonbae troops to Silla’s aid. Later he would attempt to dictate Silla’s internal affairs because of this assistance.

Kwonbeop is the term for unarmed methods in Korean martial arts as developed in the Joseon era. It is the Korean rendition of the Chinese Quan fa/ Kung Fu.

Destruction of the Korean palace and its libraries as well as the Mongol invasion and domination has eliminated any literary history of Korea prior to that time.

-Cadets of the Pyong Dang (“educational institute”) in the Goguryeo kingdom learned punching, strikes and kicks called Ji Leu and Ki Beop.
-Cadets of the Silla Kingdom learned Chil Kuk (kicks) and Soo Bak (punches and strikes).
-In the Kingdom of Baekje, “empty-hand fighting” (Soo Sool) was included in the training.

Known as the “Imjin Waerum” (Japanese invasions of Korea) This event solidified the need for more military preparedness. In 1593, King Seonjo of Joseon (1567-1608) established the Hunlyun Dokam (Royal Military Training Agency) His manual for this effort was the Jin Xiao Shin Shu or “Manual of New Military Tactics” written by General Qi Jiguang (Chi- Jig-jaun) (1528-1588) and published in 1567.

Chapter 14 of this manual addressed 32 methods of using the body for hand-to-hand combat, which General Qi stated was of little use on the battlefield; but he acknowledged the contribution to the confidence and conditioning of his soldiers still carried merit. These 32 methods, gleaned from an examination of 16 major fighting systems in Ming China, were recorded in 32 brief poems, while the practical use and applications were left to the Military Training cadre.

(“In general the hand, staff, broadsword, spear….all proceed from barehanded techniques to train the body and the hands.”)
“If you are afraid of your opponent then your skill is still shallow. If you are good at contests it must be that the art is refined. The ancients said, ‘when the art is high, the peoples courage is great.’ This is credible”
Korea’s efforts were quickly eclipsed by Japan which subjugated Korea, and after 1910 Japan imposed its customs and practices on the Korean population. In the urban areas such Japanese practices as Kendo, Judo, and Aikido were adopted and given Korean names. In this way Japanese Shotokan and Shudokan Karate became the foundation for Taekwondo and Tangsoodo.

Further complicating the situation was the indiscriminate use of Korean and Japanese terms between and among these practices. Shandong province had imparted to Korea a variety of arts over the years. Styles such as Northern Praying Mantis Other Chinese Boxing traditions such as Northern Long Fist (Changquan), Tam Tui (Tán Tuǐ), Baqua Chang (Baguazhang) and Hsing-Yi Boxing (Xingyiquan), all found their way to Korea. Chinese Civil war in 1948 bringing Southern Long Fist and Southern Preying Mantis as well new terms, such as Kung Fu, Sip Pal Ki, Chuan Fa, Chin Na and Shaolin. During the 1970’s and 1980’s, a variety of efforts were made to develop a definitive tradition which would represent Korea’s Military past.

Ssireum (Cy-ree-um) is Korean wrestling and is a folk wrestling style and traditional national sport of Korea.
In the modern form each contestant wears a belt (satba) that wraps around the waist and the thigh. The competition employs a series of techniques, which inflict little harm or injury to the opponent: opponents lock on to each other’s belt, and one achieves victory by bringing any part of the opponent’s body above the knee to the ground.

Goguryeo (Go-Gah-rye-i-o) was the most advanced, and likely the first established, of the three kingdoms. It eventually became the largest of the three kingdoms. It was a highly militaristic state that reached its zenith in the fifth century, during the rule of King Gwanggaeto the Great and his son King Jangsu, and particularly during their campaign against China in Manchuria. For the next century or so, Goguryeo was the dominant nation in Chinese Manchuria and the Korean peninsula. Gwanggaeto achieved a loose unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. After the establishment of the Sui Dynasty and later the Tang Dynasty in China, the estate continued to harass China and Korean Silla and Baekje until conquered by allied Silla–Tang forces in 668. Most of its territory was absorbed by Tang Dynasty China and the territory of former Baekje was absorbed by Korean Silla.

Baekje was founded as a member of the Mahan confederacy. Two sons of the founder of Goguryeo are recorded to have fled a succession conflict, to establish Baekje around the present Seoul area. It absorbed or conquered other Mahan chiefdoms, and by the 4th century, it controlled most of the western Korean peninsula. Baekje was a great maritime power; its nautical skill was instrumental in the dissemination of Buddhism throughout East Asia and continental culture to Japan. Baekje played a fundamental role in transmitting cultural developments, including Chinese characters and Buddhism, into ancient Japan. Baekje was once a great military power on the Korean Peninsula, especially during the time of Geunchogo, but was critically defeated by Gwanggaeto the Great and declined.

Silla- Seorabeol (or Saro, later Silla) in the southeast of the peninsula unified and expanded the confederation of city-states known as Jinhan. Silla was likely the last of the three kingdoms to establish a centralized government. Although records show that Silla was the earliest-founded of the three kingdoms archaeological records since then indicate Silla was the smallest and weakest of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Silla used cunning diplomatic means to make opportunistic pacts and alliances with the more powerful Korean kingdoms, and eventually Tang China, to its great advantage. Renamed from Saro to Silla in 503, the kingdom annexed the Gaya confederacy. Goguryeo and Baekje responded by forming an alliance. To cope with invasions from Goguryeo and Baekje, Silla deepened its relations with the Tang Dynasty and with their allies help conquered Goguryeo and Baekje. Then Silla drove the Tang forces out of the peninsula and occupied the lands south of Pyongyang.

Purple Belt -Requirements
4th Guep

1- Techniques .
Legs
Jump Spinning Hook, Axe, and Crescent Kicks
Inverted Roundhouse Kick
Foot Sweep
Cartwheel Kick (Lead and Trailing Leg)
Jumping Double Front Kick
Flying Back Kick
Spinning Front Kick

Hands
Circular Punching Techniques (Jab, Cross, Hook, Uppercut)
Jumping Haymaker Punch
Spinning Elbow
Jump Spinning Elbow/Back Fist
Jumping Downward/Slashing Elbow

Blocks
Hooking Block
Knife Hand Twin Forearm Block
Double Forearm Block

Stances
X-stance (High and Low)
Flamingo Stance

Concepts
Using the Flamingo to chase, evade, and surprise sparring opponent.
Advancing from Flamingo to Shield block, and Vice Versa
Kick Catching- Throwing the Heel
Lock and Toss

Clinching Fundamentals
Single Collar Clinching (Half Clinch)
Elbow Centering in the Clinch
Aggressive/Dominant Handling in the Clinch
Throwing opponent from the Clinch

Combinations
From Flaming Stance- Roundhouse, Hook, Side Kick
Jab, Cross, Roundhouse- Flamingo afterwards with a pause- Side kick High, Power Side Kick Mid (All without putting the foot down after the Flamingo)

2- Form .

Yul-Guk
Yul Gok (“Chestnut valley”) is the pseudonym of the great philosopher and scholar Yi I (1536- 1584) nicknamed the “Confucius of Korea”. He was a revered politician and reformer. It is said that by the age of seven he had finished his lessons in the Confucian classics, and passed the Civil Service literary examination at the age of 13. After 3 years of studying Buddhism, he came back to civilization and passed special exams with top honors with a winning thesis titled Cheondochaek “Book on the Way of Heaven” regarded as a literary masterpiece, displaying knowledge of history, Confucian philosophy of politics, and reflecting his profound knowledge of Taoism.

He served in various positions in government from the conviction that a righteous government could be achieved. A social reformer he did not completely agree with the dualistic Neo-Confucianism teachings. He instead placed emphasis on the more concrete, material elements; rather than inner spiritual perception, this practical approach valued external experience and learning. Well known for his foresight about national security. He proposed to draft and reinforce the army against a possible Japanese attack. His proposal was rejected by the central government, his worry was found to be well-founded soon after his death, during the Imjin war.

According to legend, he had a pavilion built near the ford of the Imjin River in his lifetime and instructed his heirs to set it ablaze when the king had to flee northward from Seoul, to provide a guiding beacon. This would have taken place during Japans invasions of Korea at the Imjin war.

The 38 movements refer to his birthplace on the 38th latitude. The diagram represents the Chinese character for “scholar”.
Diagram and number of movements: Yul Gok has 38 movements and its diagram is-
The five judging criteria for Hyungs: stance, technique, power, concentration, chamber.

3- Self-defense .
Full Nelson
Rhino

4- Breaking .
Legs- Spinning Back Kick
Hands- Rear Elbow

5- Knowledge .
1-The flag of South Korea, also known as the Taegukgi has three parts: a white rectangular background, a red and blue Taeguk in the center that symbolizes a balance, and four black trigrams, which are selected from the original eight, on each corner of the flag. The flag’s background is white, which is a traditional Korean color, common to the daily attire of 19th century Koreans and the color is also use for a traditional Korean wear (hanbok). It represents peace and purity. The circle in the middle is derived from the philosophy of yin-yang and represents the balance of the universe. The blue section represents the negative cosmic forces, and the red section represents the opposing positive cosmic forces.

The trigrams together represent the principle of movement and harmony. Each trigram represents one of the four classical elements. They are Geon, Ri, Gam, and Gon:
-The first on the left corner is 3 solid lines is Geon- with associated meanings of Heaven, Spring, East, Humanity, Father and Justice.
-The Second on the bottom left corner is 2 solid lines with a broken one in the middle is Ri with meanings of Sun, Autumn, South, Justice, Daughter, and Fire.
-The 3rd is on the top right corner and it has 2 broken lines with a solid line in the middle and it is Gam with associations of Moon, Winter, North, Intelligence, Son, Water, and Wisdom.
-The 4th is on the bottom right corner and all 3 lines are broken. It is Gon, with meanings of Earth, Summer, West, Courtesy, Mother, and Vitality.

2-In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (“dark—bright”) describe how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another.

Many tangible dualities (such as light and dark, fire and water, expanding and contracting) are thought of as physical manifestations of the duality symbolized by yin and yang. This duality lies at the origins of many branches of classical Chinese science and philosophy, as well as being a primary guideline of traditional Chinese medicine, and a central principle of different forms of Chinese martial arts and exercise.

Duality is found in many belief systems, but Yin and Yang are parts of a Oneness that is also equated with the Tao.
Yin and yang can be thought of as complementary (rather than opposing) forces that interact to form a dynamic system in which the whole is greater than the assembled parts. Everything has both yin and yang aspects, (for instance shadow cannot exist without light). Either of the two major aspects may manifest more strongly in a particular object, depending on the criterion of the observation.

Yin – negative/passive/female principle in nature, the moon, shaded orientation, covert; concealed; hidden, negative, north side of a hill, south bank of a river, overcast, sinister; treacherous

Yang – positive/active/male principle in nature, the sun, in relief, open; overt, belonging to this world, masculine, south side of a hill, north bank of a river.

In the I Ching, originally a divination manual of the Western Zhou period (1000–750 BC), yin and yang are represented by broken and solid lines: yin is broken, and yang is solid. These are then combined into trigrams, which are more yang (e.g. ☱) or more yin (e.g. ☵) depending on the number of broken and solid lines (e.g., ☰ is heavily yang, while ☷ is heavily yin. The relative positions and numbers of yin and yang lines within the trigrams determine the meaning of a trigram.

3-Korean Martial Arts
Tang Soo Do “The Way of the Chinese Hand” is a Korean martial art incorporating fighting principles from Subak, as well as Northern Chinese Kung Fu. The techniques of what is commonly known as Tang Soo Do combine elements of Shotokan Karate, Subak, Taekkyon, and Kung Fu.

Kuk Sool Won translates to “National Martial Art Association” and despite often being shortened to “Kuk Sool”, the name kuk sool denotes similar Korean martial arts developed prior to or about the same time as the formation of Kuk Sool Won. It was founded as a martial arts system and not merely as a martial arts style, Kuk Sool Won does not consider itself limited to any single discipline. It attempts to be a comprehensive study of all traditional Korean martial arts.

The study of Kuk Sool Won includes many modern day techniques such as gun defense and weapon improvisation. There is also an emphasis on joint locks and pressure points. Kuk Sool Won is also described as being a hard-soft style, which includes hard and forceful strikes in addition to circular and fluid movements. Suh In Hyuk’s (the creator of the art) philosophy regarding his system is to “Integrate and explore the entire spectrum of established traditional Korean martial arts, body conditioning techniques, mental development, and weapons training.”

Hapkido is a form of self-defense that employs similar joint locks, grappling and throwing techniques to other martial arts, as well as kicks, punches, and other striking attacks. There is also the use of traditional weapons, including knife, sword, rope, nunchaku, cane, short stick, and middle-length staff (analogous to the Japanese bō)
Hapkido contains both long- and close-range fighting techniques, utilizing jumping kicks and percussive hand strikes at longer ranges as well as pressure point strikes, joint locks, or throws at closer fighting distances.
Hapkido emphasizes circular motion, redirection of force, and control of the opponent. Practitioners seek to gain advantage through footwork and body positioning to incorporate the use of leverage, avoiding the use of strength against strength.
Hap means “coordinated” or “joining”- ki describes internal energy, spirit, strength, or power; and- do means “way” or “art”, yielding a literal translation of “joining-energy-way”. It is most often translated as “the way of coordinating energy”, “the way of coordinated power” or “the way of harmony”.
Although aikido and hapkido are believed by many to share a common history, they remain separate and distinct from one another. They differ significantly in philosophy, range of responses and manner of executing techniques.
On the “hard-soft” scale of martial arts, hapkido stands somewhere in the middle, employing “soft” techniques similar to jujutsu and aikido as well as “hard” techniques reminiscent of taekwondo and tang soo do. Even the “hard” techniques, though, emphasize circular rather than linear movements.

4- The Kingdom of Ayutthaya was a Siamese kingdom that existed from 1351 to 1767. Ayutthaya was friendly towards foreign traders and in the sixteenth century; it was described by foreign traders as one of the biggest and wealthiest cities in the East. The court of King Narai (1656–88) had strong links with that of King Louis XIV of France, whose ambassadors compared the city in size and wealth to Paris. In foreign accounts, Ayutthaya was called Siam, but many sources say the people of Ayutthaya called themselves Tai, and their Kingdom Krung Tai “The Tai country.”

Ayutthaya began its hegemony/rule by conquering northern kingdoms and city-states like Sukhothai, a subjugated portion of the Khmer Empire, a vast and expanding kingdom. But due to a whole slew of unknown reasons, it began to decline in power. Some speculation point to the devastating effects of the Black death Plague on the people in this region of the world.

A local King named Prince Uthong (“Golden Cradle”) or Ramathibodi I began conquering other small cities eventually amassing a large force in 1350. They took the old Khmer location of Ayatthuya and held it for some time. He did so well by established four Great Officers of State, codifying the T’ai laws and finally, he formed an alliance with the Ming Dynasty in China. A near mythic figure he was reported to be an ethnic Chinese, having sailed down from China. After succeeding in trade, he became influential enough to rule the coastal city of Phetchaburi, and start his conquering from there.

Starting in the middle of the 16th century, the kingdom came under repeated attacks by the Taungoo Dynasty of Burma (a remaining portion of the Khmer Empire. The Burmese–Siamese War (1547–49) began with the Burmese invasion and ended with a failed siege of Ayutthaya. A second siege (1563–64) led by a King of Burma forced the then King of Ayuthaya to surrender in 1564.

A prince of the conquered king named Naresuan came to power 20 years later and proclaimed Ayutthaya’s independence in 1584. The Thai’s fought off repeated Burmese invasions (1584–1593), punctuated by an elephant duel between King Naresuan and Burmese heir-apparent Mingyi Swa in 1593 during the fourth siege of Ayutthaya in which Naresuan famously slew Mingyi Swa (This is presently observed on the 18th of January as the Royal Thai Armed Forces day).
The Burmese army is said to have won the initial skirmishes, and pressed down on the Siamese vanguard army. Naresuan, his brother and their bodyguards stood their ground and fought on. But as other Siamese forces fell back, they came to be surrounded by the Burmese forces. Facing certain death, Naresuan issued a challenge to Mingyi Swa to fight him in single combat on their war elephants. Although he had them surrounded, Swa, for some reason, accepted the challenge. It is conjecture that the Burmese prince accepted the challenge because of his “kingly pride consistent with his royal birth,” and because he was “ashamed not to accept it”.

At any rate, the two men and their crews then fought on war elephants. Swa is said to have landed his sword on the helmet of Naresuan. But Naresuan recovered and cut Swa on the right shoulder driving his blade through the body nearly cleaving him in half and killing Swa on the spot.

This is the myth, but another report says:
Swa and his two mahouts unsuccessfully tried to fight off an enraged elephant that had been driven mad after being mortared pushing their war elephant out of cover and into the open view of the enemy. Both elephants immediately came under Siamese fire, and Swa and the front mahout were felled by a mortar round. The lone survivor, the middle mahout named Tuyin Bala tried to hide Swa’s death by having the crown prince’s body lean over his back while he managed to drive his elephant to the back of the lines. No one in Burmese or Siamese command knew of the death, and the battle went on. The battle ended with the Siamese army retreating to Ayutthaya. After the battle, the Burmese command now led by Thado Dhamma Yaza III of Prome realized the death, and they collectively decided to retreat, rather than to attack the city.

The Burmese–Siamese War (1594–1605) was a Thai attack on Burma, resulting in the capture of many former Burmese territories. Naresuan even invaded mainland Burma as far as Taungoo in 1600, but was driven back.
After Naresuan’s death in 1605, most of the gains went back to Burmese control in 1614.
After a bloody period of dynastic struggle, Ayutthaya entered into what has been called the golden age, a relatively peaceful episode in the second quarter of the eighteenth century when art, literature, and learning flourished.

There were foreign wars. Ayutthaya fought with the Nguyễn Lords (Vietnamese rulers of South Vietnam) for control of Cambodia starting around 1715. But a greater threat came from Burma, where the new Konbaung dynasty had subdued the Shan states.

In the mid-eighteenth century, Ayutthaya again became ensnared in wars with the Burmese. The Burmese–Siamese War (1759–60) begun by the Konbaung Dynasty of Burma failed. The Burmese–Siamese War (1765–67)
In 1765, a combined 40,000-strong force of Burmese armies invaded the territories of Ayutthaya from the north and west. After a 14 months’ siege, the city of Ayutthaya capitulated and was burned in April 1767. Ayutthaya’s art treasures, the libraries containing its literature, and the archives housing its historic records were almost totally destroyed, and the Burmese brought the Ayutthaya Kingdom to ruin.

The Burmese rule lasted a mere few months. The Burmese, who had also been fighting a simultaneous war with the Chinese since 1765, were forced to withdraw in early 1768 when the Chinese forces threatened their own capital. One general, Phraya Taksin, former governor of Tak, began the reunification effort. Taak-Sin ascended the throne, becoming known as King Taak-Sin or Taksin.

5-Tao or Dao is a Chinese word signifying ‘way’, ‘path’, ‘route’, ‘key’ or sometimes more loosely ‘doctrine’ or ‘principle’. Within traditional Chinese philosophy and religion, the Tao is the intuitive knowing of “life” that cannot be grasped full-heartedly as just a concept but is known nonetheless through actual living experience of one’s everyday being.

Laozi in the Tao Te Ching explains that the Tao is not a ‘name’ for a ‘thing’ but the underlying natural order of the Universe whose ultimate essence is difficult to circumscribe due to it being non conceptual yet evident’ in one’s being of aliveness. The Tao is “eternally nameless” and to be distinguished from the countless ‘named’ things which are considered to be its manifestations, the reality of life before its descriptions of it.

The word “Tao” has a variety of meanings in both ancient and modern Chinese language. Aside from its purely utilitarian use to mean road, channel, path, principle, or similar, the word has acquired a variety of differing and often confusing metaphorical, philosophical and religious uses. In most belief systems, the word is used symbolically in its sense of ‘way’ as the ‘right’ or ‘proper’ way of existence, or in the context of ongoing practices of attainment or of the full coming into being, or the state of enlightenment or spiritual perfection that is the outcome of such practices.

The Tao can be roughly thought of as the flow of the Universe, or as some essence or pattern behind the natural world that keeps the Universe balanced and ordered. It is related to the idea of qi, the essential energy of action and existence. The Tao is a non-dualistic principle – it is the greater whole from which all the individual elements of the Universe derive.

In all its uses, the Tao is considered to have ineffable qualities that prevent it from being defined or expressed in words. It can, however, be known or experienced, and its principles (which can be discerned by observing Nature) can be followed or practiced. Much of East Asian philosophical writing focuses on the value of adhering to the principles of the Tao and the various consequences of failing to do so.

6- History of Israel
The people of Israel (also called the “Jewish People”) trace their origin to Abraham, who established the belief that there is only one God, the creator of the universe. Abraham, his son Yitshak (Isaac), and grandson Jacob (Israel), are referred to as the patriarchs of the Israelites. All three patriarchs lived in the Land of Canaan, that later came to be known as the Land of Israel. They and their wives are buried in the Tomb of the Patriarchs, in Hebron.

The name Israel derives from the name given to Jacob. His 12 sons were the Colonels of 12 tribes that later developed into the Jewish nation. The name Jew derives from Yehuda (Judah) one of the 12 sons of Jacob (Reuben, Shimon, Levi, Yehuda, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Yisachar, Zevulun, Yosef, Binyamin). So, the names Israel, Israeli or Jewish refer to people of the same origin.

The descendants of Abraham crystallized into a nation at about 1300 BCE after their Exodus from Egypt under the leadership of Moses (Moshe in Hebrew). Soon after the Exodus, Moses transmitted to the people of this new emerging nation, the Torah, and the Ten Commandments. After 40 years in the Sinai desert, Moses led them to the Land of Israel that is cited in The Bible as the land promised by God to the descendants of the patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.

The people of modern day Israel share the same language and culture shaped by the Jewish heritage and religion passed through generations starting with the founding father Abraham (ca.1800 BCE). Thus, Jews have had continuous presence in the land of Israel for the past 3,300 years.

The rule of Israelites in the land of Israel starts with the conquests of Joshua (ca. 1250 BCE). The period from 1000-587 BCE is known as the “Period of the Kings”. The most noteworthy kings were King David (1010-970 BCE), who made Jerusalem the Capital of Israel, and his son Solomon (Shlomo, 970-931 BCE), who built the first Temple in Jerusalem as prescribed in the Tanach (Old Testament). In 587 BCE, Babylonian Nebuchadnezzar’s army captured Jerusalem, destroyed the Temple, and exiled the Jews to Babylon (modern day Iraq).

This year marks a turning point in the history of the region. From this year onwards, the region was ruled or controlled by a succession of superpower empires of the time in the following order: Babylonian, Persian, Greek Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine Empires, Islamic and Christian crusaders, Ottoman Empire, and the British Empire.
After the exile by the Romans in 70 CE, the Jewish people migrated to Europe and North Africa. In the Diaspora (scattered outside of the Land of Israel), they established rich cultural and economic lives, and contributed greatly to the societies where they lived. Yet, they continued their national culture and prayed to return to Israel through centuries.

In the first half of the 20th century there were major waves of immigration of Jews back to Israel from Arab countries and from Europe. During the British rule in Palestine, the Jewish people were subject to great violence and massacres directed by Arab civilians or forces of the neighboring Arab states. During World War II, the Nazi regime in Germany decimated about 6 million Jews creating the great tragedy of The Holocaust.

In 1948, Jewish Community in Israel under the leadership of David Ben-Gurion reestablished sovereignty over their ancient homeland. Declaration of independence of the modern State of Israel was announced on the day that the last British forces left Israel (May 14, 1948).

Arab-Israeli wars
A day after the declaration of independence of the State of Israel, armies of five Arab countries, Egypt, Syria, Transjordan, Lebanon and Iraq, invaded Israel. This marked the beginning of the War of Independence. Arab states have jointly waged four full scale wars against Israel:
1948 War of Independence
1956 Sinai War
1967 Six Day War
1973 Yom Kippur War

Despite the numerical superiority of the Arab armies, Israel defended itself each time and won. After each war, the Israeli army withdrew from most of the areas it captured. This is unprecedented in World history and shows Israel’s willingness to reach peace even at the risk of fighting for its very existence each time anew. Note that with Judea and Samaria- Israel is only 40 miles wide. Thus, Israel can be crossed from the Mediterranean coast to the Eastern border at Jordan River within two hours of driving.

Brown Belt -Requirements
3rd Guep

1- Techniques .
Legs

Wheel Kick (Both Front and Side)
Butterfly Kick
Flying Double Side Kick
Jumping Front Splits Kick
Uppercut Kick
Scorpion Kick
360 kick
Roundhouse (Ball of Foot)

Hands
Twin Vertical/Horizontal Punch
Twin Uppercut Punch
Knuckle Punching (Extended Knuckle)
Double Elbow Chop (Standing and in the Air)

Blocks
Ridge Hand Block
Pressing Block
U-shaped Block

Concepts
Offensive attacks to the Arms and Legs of an opponent
Performing Techniques with Backwards Movement
Kick Catch-Heel Catch Ground Point (Lower Your Stance)
Hook and Pull (Opponent offers Resistance- Back Leg Foot Sweep)

Clinching Fundamentals
Low Knees to the Thighs from the Clinch Side Clinch (Be able to Perform Knee Strikes)
Throw from the Side Clinch- (Post Leg Put Opponent Over the Leg)
Defense Dual Arm Lock and Throw

Combinations
Jab, Lead Back Fist, Cross Rear Back Fist
Lead Low Thai Kick, Mid Rear Thai Kick
Rear Thrust Kick, Tornado Kick

2- Form .
Joon Gun
Joon Gun is named after the patriot An Jung-Geun September 2, 1879 – March 26, 1910; Baptismal name: Thomas) was a Korean independence activist, nationalist, and pan-Asianist who On October 26, 1909 assassinated Itō Hirobumi, the first Japanese governor-general of Korea, known as the man who played the leading part in the Korea-Japan merger.

As a boy, he learned Chinese literature and Western sciences, but was more interested in martial arts and marksmanship. Kim Gu future leader of the Korean independence movement who had taken refuge at his house at the time, wrote that young Ahn Jung-Geun was an excellent marksman, liked to read books, and had strong charisma. He devoted himself to the education of Korean people after the Eulsa Treaty by establishing private schools. He joined the armed resistance against Japan and was appointed a lieutenant general leading several attacks against the Japanese.

Ahn passed the guards at the Harbin Railway Station. Ito Hirobumi had come back from negotiating with the Russian representative on the train. Ahn shot Ito three times with a pistol on the railway platform, as well as 4 other Japanese officials. After the shooting, Ahn yelled out for Korean independence waving the Korean flag, and was arrested by Russian guards who turned him over to the Japanese.

At his triall he said, “I have ventured to commit a serious crime, offering my life for my country. This is the behavior of a noble-minded patriot.” In the court, Ahn insisted that he be treated as a prisoner of war, as a General of the Korean resistance army, instead of a criminal, and listed 15 crimes Ito had committed which convinced him to kill Ito, among those being the Assassinating the Korean Empress Myeongseong.

“I, as a lieutenant general of the Korean resistance army, killed the criminal Ito Hirobumi because he disturbed the peace of the Orient and estranged the relationship between Korea and Japan. I hoped that if Korea and Japan be friendlier and are ruled peacefully, they would be a model all throughout the five continents. I did not kill Ito misunderstanding his intentions.”

Ahn’s Japanese captors showed sympathy to him even his public prosecutor, said, “From what you have told me, it is clear that you are a righteous man of East Asia. I can’t believe a sentence of death will be imposed on a righteous man. There’s nothing to worry about.”

But Tokyo ordered prompt action, and before his death his two brothers met with him to deliver their mother’s message, “Your death is for the sake of your country, and don’t ask for your life cowardly. Your brave death for justice is a final filial regards to your mother.”

Ahn requested to be executed as a prisoner of war, by firing squad. But instead it was ordered that he should be hanged as a common criminal. As a final show of respect he was allowed to wear white silk Korean clothes as he requested. His grave has not been found. He was posthumously awarded the Order of Merit for National Foundation in 1962 by the South Korean government, the most prestigious civil decoration in the Republic of Korea.

There are 32 movements in this pattern to represent Mr. Ahn’s age when he was executed at Lui-Shung prison in 1910.
Diagram and number of movements: Joon Gun has 32 movements and its diagram is a capital “I”.

3- Self-defense .
Chokes on the Ground

4- Breaking .
Legs- Flying Side Kick
Hands- Knife Hand

5- Knowledge .
1-Explain the concepts of engage/disengage, what ifs, adaptation, and simplicity in training.

2-Phases of Sparring-Offense, Defense, Counter
The goal of sparring is for on participant to impose his/her will on another in a contest set by rules in a friendly if not civil manner.

Offense- this phase is characterized by aggressive movement by one of the participants. This Movement can be directed forward, sideways, or backwards but it is framed with technique, or the impression of technique being thrown. In this phase of sparring it is easy to get tunnel-vision (loss of peripheral vision, or the loss of conceptual vision in a fight), as the body natural goes to the most practiced movements that the practitioner is comfortable with. This limited scope of ability tends to make participants dependent upon 2-4 techniques, singular or in combination.
This tendency; while not overtly un-advantageous tends to present openings for the opponent who is either being withered by the blows and strikes out blindly, or a blocking participant who is looking to counter.

Defense- This phase is characterized by cautious movement by one partner responding to the aggressive motions of another. The goal in this phase is to minimize damage/loss of points, by taking away the targets of the aggressor by either blocking or evading incoming technique. It is possible to command an entire encounter this way, as a proper defense can render an aggressor completely ineffective. There is a fine line however when it comes to defense, as it can be easily construed as running away, or being evoked due to fear of being hit. The balance is struck by using this phase to spot holes in an aggressor’s pattern of attack. Once the holes have been spotted, directing technique to these areas usually tends to turn the tables within the engagement.

Counter/Trap- Counter phase of sparring is the glue between both offense and defense in which rounds, and entire matches are won or lost. Usually in a contest of equally skilled participants this tends to be the only way consistent scoring, and hits are taken on either side.

The goal of the counter phase is to imply nonverbally that the opponent whether in offense or defense has a chance to land technique in an opportune spot. Once the technique is loosed, it is the counter fighter who comes out victorious in small increments by taking advantage of being 2 steps ahead of adversarial movement, to deliver technique to an opening presented by the aggressor in their forward movement. This can produce a tit-for-tat scenario, cause a participant to be “gunshy”, or promote the ‘Winding up” of a powerful technique. All 3 are not inherently un-advantageous but tunnel-vision becomes an issue for the repetitive use of any of the 3 tendency’s
Besting a counter fighter at times takes becoming a counter fighter, who can see farther ahead in the way of steps. Counter fighters can also be beaten by a continuous volley of non-telegraphed offensive technique, or a particularly scrutinizing defense that commits techniques that are hard to counter off of.

Within sparring, both participants are floating in and out of all 3 phases at any given time. Thought is rarely placed in such things with novices, but as skills develop a need to heed such principles has its invaluable place.
Any of these phases can beat one another in the hands of any given participant.

3-Silat is a collective word for a class of indigenous martial arts from a geo-cultural area of Southeast Asia encompassing most of the Indonesian Archipelago, the Malay Archipelago and the entirety of the Malay Peninsula. Originally developed in what are now Indonesia, peninsular Malaysia, south Thailand, and Singapore, it is also traditionally practiced in Brunei, central Vietnam and the southern Philippines. There are hundreds of different styles (aliran) and schools (perguruan) but they tend to focus either on strikes, joint manipulation, throws, weaponry, or some combination thereof.

While the word silat is used by Malay-speakers throughout Southeast Asia, the art is officially called Pencak Silat in Indonesia. Generally speaking, Silat Melayu is often associated with fixed hand positions, low stances, and slow dance-like movements. While this generalization does not necessarily reflect the reality of silat techniques, it has had a notable influence on the stereotypical way the art is portrayed in Malaysia, Singapore, and to a lesser extent, Brunei.

The origin of the word silat is uncertain. However, the most common theory is that it derives from sekilat meaning “as (fast as) lightning” Other theories derive silat from the Sanskrit sīla meaning morality or principle, or the Chinese saula which means to push or perform with the hands. In its proper usage in the languages of its origin, silat is often a general term for any fighting style. This is still common in Indonesia where in some regions both silat and kuntao are traditionally interchangeable.

The silat tradition is mostly oral, having been passed down almost entirely by word of mouth. In the absence of written records, much of its history is known only through myth and archaeological evidence. The earliest evidence of a more organized silat comes from the Riau-Lingga archipelago, which acted as a land bridge between the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Located between Singapore and Sumatra island, the local population gathered great mobility in small boats. The journeys of these sea-nomads regularly extended as far as the Philippines in the north, the Maluku Islands in the east, the Lesser Sunda Islands in the south, and Tenasserim Island in Myanmar. At some point or another they came into contact with the Thais, Malays, Toraja, Chinese, Bugis, Moluccans, Madurese, Dayaks, Sulu, Orang Asli and Burmese until they spread across the Malay Archipelago.

Their heterogeneous systems of combat are termed Silat Melayu. Practiced since at least the 6th century, they formed the basis for the fighting arts of Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, southern Thailand, and most of Indonesia. From its birthplace of Riau, silat quickly spread to the Srivijaya empire and the Minangkabau capital of Pariaman, both powers known for their military might.

The influence of both India and China were fundamental to the development of silat. By adopting the Indian faiths of Hinduism and Buddhism, Southeast Asian social structure became more organized. Forms are said to have been introduced by the Indian Buddhist monk Bodhidharma who came to Southeast Asia via the Srivijayan capital of Palembang. Many of silat’s medicinal practices and weapons originated in either India or China, and the thigh-slapping actions in silat jurus are reminiscent of Hindu wrestling. Some form of wrestling is indeed portrayed in Indonesian temple art.

The martial arts practiced by the Chinese community of Southeast Asia are referred to as Kuntao. Their weapons are purportedly the same as China with the exception of the chakram which locals are said to be highly skilled with. Between the 11th and 14th centuries, silat reached its peak under Majapahit. Founded by Raden Wijaya after repelling the Mongols, the empire united all of Indonesia’s islands and extended its influence into peninsular Malaysia and the southern Philippines. Silat was and in some cases still is used by the defense forces of various Southeast Asian kingdoms and states in what are now Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand and Brunei.
Folklore commonly credits the promulgation of silat to pendeta or Hindu-Buddhist sages, often through the study of animals and the natural world. The priests were said to combine the animal movements with meditative postures (semadi) and mystic hand positions (mudra), much like the kuji-in of ninjutsu. The animal-based idea was most likely adopted from Indian martial arts. The village shamans or dukun would often learn silat both as part of their craft and for defending themselves while travelling.

Prior to the introduction of firearms, weapons training was actually considered to be of greater value than unarmed techniques and even today many masters consider a student’s training incomplete if they have not learned the use of weapons.

4-Confucius was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.

The philosophy of Confucius emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. His followers competed successfully with many other schools during the Hundred Schools of Thought era only to be suppressed in favor of the Legalists during the Qin Dynasty. Following the victory of Han over Chu after the collapse of Qin, Confucius’ thoughts received official sanction and were further developed into a system known in the West as Confucianism.

Confucius’s principles had a basis in common Chinese tradition and belief. He championed strong family loyalty, ancestor veneration, and respect of elders by their children and of husbands by their wives. He also recommended family as a basis for ideal government. He espoused the well-known principle “Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself”, the Golden Rule.

Confucius is also a traditional deity in Daoism.

5-Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life. Confucianism developed from what was later called the Hundred Schools of Thought from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551–479 BCE), who considered himself a re-transmitter of the values of the Zhou dynasty golden age of several centuries before.
Confucian approaches edged out the “proto-Taoist” Huang-Lao, as the official ideology while the emperors mixed both with the realist techniques of Legalism. The disintegration of the Han political order in the second century CE opened the way for the doctrines of Buddhism and Neo-Taoism, which offered spiritual explanations lacking in Confucianism.

A Confucian revival began during the Tang dynasty of 618-907. In the late Tang, Confucianism developed in response to Buddhism and Taoism and was reformulated as Neo-Confucianism. This reinvigorated form was adopted as the basis of the imperial exams and the core philosophy of the scholar official class in the Song dynasty (960-1297). The abolition of the examination system in 1905 marked the end of official Confucianism. They searched for new doctrines to replace Confucian teachings; some of these new ideologies include the “Three Principles of the People” with the establishment of the Republic of China, and then Maoism under the People’s Republic of China. In the late twentieth century Confucian work ethic has been credited with the rise of the East Asian economy.

With particular emphasis on the importance of the family and social harmony, rather than on an otherworldly source of spiritual values, the core of Confucianism is humanistic. According to Herbert Fingarette’s concept of “the secular as sacred”, Confucianism regards the ordinary activities of human life — and especially in human relationships as a manifestation of the sacred, because they are the expression of our moral nature which has a transcendent anchorage in Heaven and a proper respect for the spirits or gods.

The ‘this-worldly concern’ of Confucianism rests on the belief that human beings are fundamentally good, and teachable, improvable, and perfectible through personal and communal endeavor especially self-cultivation and self-creation. Confucian thought focuses on the cultivation of virtue and maintenance of ethics. Traditionally, cultures and countries in the East Asian cultural sphere are strongly influenced by Confucianism, including mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam, as well as various territories settled predominantly by Chinese people, such as Singapore. In the 20th century Confucianism’s influence diminished greatly.

6-The philosophy of CKM can be broken down into three main dimensions:
Ethical: Our intention is to find an honorable path towards a peaceful resolution. Violence should be our last resort. We seek to give the aggressor a chance to save face, an honorable solution as a way out, without ever compromising his/her own sense of self-esteem. We work to dissolve our own ego and respect every other human being, regardless of race, religion, or gender. Therefore, the fundamental principal is of no first use of force. We don’t live to fight, we fight to live.

Pragmatic: While seeking peace, prepare for war. Fighting in self-defense is legally acceptable in most countries. Aggression and the use of force is not.

Dynamic: A fight can change rapidly and tactics also change over time. We must remain adaptable, training for immediate change as well as adapting our training to take into account the adaptation of those who seek to harm us. Any system that remains static can quickly become outdated. The key to survival is to continually evolve and progress.

7-Jujutsu is a Japanese martial art and a method of close combat for defeating an armed and armored opponent in which one uses no weapon or only a short weapon.

“Jū” can be translated to mean “gentle, soft, supple, flexible, pliable, or yielding.” “Jutsu” can be translated to mean “art” or “technique” and represents manipulating the opponent’s force against himself rather than confronting it with one’s own force. Jujutsu developed to combat the samurai of feudal Japan as a method for defeating an armed and armored opponent in which one uses no weapon, or only a short weapon. Because striking against an armored opponent proved ineffective, practitioners learned that the most efficient methods for neutralizing an enemy took the form of pins, joint locks, and throws. These techniques were developed around the principle of using an attacker’s energy against him, rather than directly opposing it.

There are many variations of the art, which leads to a diversity of approaches. Jujutsu schools (ryū) may utilize all forms of grappling techniques to some degree (i.e. throwing, trapping, joint locks, holds, gouging, biting, disengagements, striking, and kicking). In addition to jujutsu, many schools teach the use of weapons.

Today, jujutsu is practiced in both traditional and modern sports forms. Derived sport forms include the Olympic sport and martial art of judo, which was developed by Kanō Jigorō in the late 19th century from several traditional styles of jujutsu, and Brazilian jiu-jitsu, which was derived from earlier (pre–World War II) versions of Kodokan judo.

8-Brazilian jiu-jitsu is a martial art, combat sport system that focuses on grappling and especially ground fighting. Brazilian jiu-jitsu was formed from Kodokan judo ground fighting (newaza) fundamentals that were taught by a number of individuals including Takeo Yano, Mitsuyo Maeda and Soshihiro Satake. Brazilian jiu-jitsu eventually came to be its own art through the experiments, practices, and adaptation of judo through Carlos and Helio Gracie (who passed their knowledge on to their extended family) as well as other instructors who were students of Maeda, such as Luiz Franca.

BJJ promotes the concept that a smaller, weaker person can successfully defend against a bigger, stronger, heavier assailant by using proper technique, leverage, and most notably, taking the fight to the ground, and then applying joint-locks and chokeholds to defeat the opponent. BJJ training can be used for sport grappling tournaments.
However it can be used in some self-defense situations and does serve its purpose. Sparring (commonly referred to as rolling) and live drilling play a major role in training, and a premium is placed on performance, especially in competition, in relation to progress and ascension through its ranking system.

Since its inception in 1882, its parent art of judo was separated from older systems of Japanese jujutsu by an important difference that was passed on to Brazilian jiu-jitsu: it is not solely a martial art, but it is also a sport; a method for promoting physical fitness and building character in young people; and, ultimately, a way (Do) of life.

Red Belt Requirements
2nd Guep

1- Techniques .
Legs
Double Crescent Kick
Double Back Kick
Scissor Kick

Hands
Leopard Punch (Middle Knuckles)
Spear Hand Downward Thrust

Blocks
W-Shaped Block

Concepts
Climbing an Opponent
Kick Catch- Twister (Catch Step Away, and Twist leg causing Opponent to Fall Backward)
Thrust Kick divert (Pass the Leg, Opponent in Splits, You’re Behind)

Clinching fundamentals
Fake Side Clinch Choke- (Under Arm, Around the Neck, Lock Hand, Lean Down)
Clinch Dump- (Under Arms Forward Shoulders Dump to Lead Leg)
Clinch Swirl Throw- (Under Arms, Twist to Lead Leg)

Combinations
The performance of 5 connective techniques molded by the student; ending with a clinch, as many Knee strikes as desired, and then any number of one of the Clinch throws.

2- FORM
Meaning of Toi Gye hyung: Toi Gye (Retreating Creek) is the pen name of the noted scholar Yi Hwang (16th century) an authority on neo-Confucianism.
He established the Yeongnam School and set up the Dosan Seowon, a private Confucian academy. He belonged to the Jinseong Yi clan, and was the youngest son among eight children. A child prodigy, he learned the Analects of Confucius from his uncle at age twelve and admiring the poetry of Tao Qian, started writing poetry.
Around the age of twenty, he immersed himself in the study of I Ching and Neo-Confucianism. He was appointed various government positions from the age of 39 and sometimes held multiple positions. His integrity made him relentless as he took part in purges of corrupt government officials. On numerous occasions he was even exiled from the capital for his firm commitment to principle.

He was disillusioned by the power struggles and discord in the royal court, and was continuously brought out of retirement. During forty years of public life he served four kings and on his death, Yi Hwang was posthumously promoted to the highest ministerial rank.

Yi Hwang was the author of many books on Confucianism, and he followed the dualistic Neo-Confucianism.
Yi Hwang placed emphasis on the i, the formative element, as the existential force that determines gi.
This school of thought contrasted with the school that focused on the concrete element of gi, established by Yi Hwang’s counterpart Yi I.

Understanding the determinative pattern of i would be more essential in understanding the universe than recognizing the principles that govern individual manifestations of gi. This approach of placing importance on the role of i became the core of the Yeongnam School, where Yi Hwang’s legacy lived on.

The 37 movements refer to his birthplace on the 37th latitude. The diagram represents “scholar”.
Diagram and number of movements: Toi Gye has 37 movements and its diagram is a plus sign with a line across the bottom, the Chinese character for scholar.

3- Self-defense .
Head Locks from the Ground

4- Breaking .
Legs-Axe Kick Hands- Ridge Hand

5- Knowledge .
Explain these three components to the philosophy of self defense: ethical, pragmatic, dynamic.

1-Self Defense- Psychology -The need to feel safe and secure is ingrained in all of us. Fear of interpersonal violence is a “universal phobia.” The thought of becoming the victim of a criminal or violent act is disturbing.
Unmanaged fear or a sense of helplessness can adversely affect health and the quality of your lives. Being safety conscious does not mean being fearful, paranoid, or afraid to leave your house.

-Self-defense knowledge and skills build a sense of control, security and well-being.
-Understanding and manage fear.
-Motivating yourself to be “responsible” for your personal safety through study and training
-Understanding the impact self-esteem has on emotional resilience, crisis performance and victim selection.

Intelligence- Your most powerful weapon is your brain. Understanding the dynamics of confrontations will have a big impact on your ability to recognize, avoid or respond effectively to violence.

This situational awareness is the cultivation of knowledge, intuition, awareness and assessment skills. Every violent situation is preceded by pre incident clues. Knowing how to recognize and respond to them is the essence of successful self-defense.

Victim Selection- There is a selection process, as well as the criteria of a “desirable target”, you can influence that process.

People who are trained in self-defense are seldom confronted. Their awareness and skills (movement, posture, etc.) project unconscious signals to a predator that they are not an easy target. The predator looks elsewhere.

Recognizing a Predator- There are no unique physical characteristics that separate people who victimize others from those who don’t. Usually, they look just like anyone else. However, behavior is another matter.

Most communication is non-verbal. We transmit much of our intent in the way that we communicate and behave.
Essentially there are two types of “bad guys ” to be aware of. The predator, who deliberately sets out to locate, select and attack a suitable victim and the ticking time bomb.

-The time bomb is emotionally unstable and prone to violent outbursts, lashing out at anyone who happens to get in his way.
-The predator, is more methodical in his/her approach.

By understanding predatory selection and attack methods, you are able to recognize and avoid them. This involves learning to detect and recognize behavior cues that identify a potential assailant before the selection process is complete.

Response Options- It is dangerous to imply that there is a single solution to all threatening situations. There is, in fact, a range of responses available to you. The situation and circumstances will dictate which of them is most appropriate.

When learning a response system, you must also consider the legal consequences of your actions. We all have the legal right to defend ourselves. However, at what point does an effort to defend yourself become excessive? How do we know how much force to use to defend ourselves? Any self-defense program should discuss your legal right to defend yourself, how to respond appropriately and how to justify your actions.

There are generally 5 categories of response options relevant to confrontational situations.
They are: Compliance, Escape, De-escalation, Assertiveness, Fighting Back

Which one is the most appropriate depends on the circumstances and nature of the confrontation. You should possess skills in each response category as well as the knowledge about when each is applicable.

Prevention- Prevention tips are simple, precautionary steps you can take to reduce the likelihood that you will become the victim of a crime. However, these lists of “do’s and don’ts” could number in the hundreds.

By understanding the operative principles behind prevention tips, you can improvise safety tactics “on the fly”. Armed with this knowledge and your own common sense, you can incorporate those tips with which you feel comfortable and which are conducive to your life.

Training- Competence is the result of your physical conditioning, skill and attitude. Effective self-defense skills are the result of gradually and consistently incorporating safety habits into your life.


1-Bruce Lee
–born Lee Jun-Fan he was known professionally as Bruce Lee, and he was a Hong Kong and American actor, martial artist, philosopher, filmmaker, and founder of the martial art Jeet Kune Do. He is widely considered to be one of the most influential martial artists of all time, and an icon of the 20th century.
Bruce Lee was born on November 27, 1940, in San Francisco’s Chinatown. According to the Chinese zodiac, Lee was born in both the hour and the year of the Dragon, which according to tradition is a strong and fortuitous omen.
Lee’s father, Lee Hoi-chuen, was one of the leading Cantonese opera and film actors at the time, and was embarking on a year-long opera tour with his family on the eve of the Japanese invasion of Hong Kong.
Lee’s mother, Grace Ho, an adopted daughter who was of Germanic descent, was from one of the wealthiest and most powerful clans in Hong Kong, the Ho-tungs. As such, the young Bruce Lee grew up in an affluent and privileged environment. Despite the advantage of his family’s status, the neighborhood in which Lee grew up became overcrowded, dangerous, and full of gang rivalries due to an influx of refugees fleeing communist China for Hong Kong, at that time a British Crown colony.

After Lee was involved in several street fights, his parents decided that he needed to be trained in the martial arts. Lee’s first introduction to martial arts was through his father, from whom he learned the fundamentals of Wu-style T’ai chi Ch’uan.

The largest influence on Lee’s martial arts development was his study of Wing Chun. Lee began training in Wing Chun when he was 16 years old under the Wing Chun teacher Yip Man in 1957, after losing several fights with rival gang members.

After a year into his Wing Chun training, most of Yip Man’s other students refused to train with Lee after they learned of his mixed ancestry (through his mother), as the Chinese were generally against teaching their martial arts techniques to non-Asians.

However, Lee showed a keen interest in Wing Chun, and continued to train privately with Yip Manly due to poor academic performance he was shuffled to different schools and would be mentored by Brother Edward, a teacher and coach of the school boxing team.

1959, Lee got into yet another street fight and the police were called. Lee’s father decided his son should leave Hong Kong as Lee’s opponent had an organized crime background, and there was the possibility that a contract was out for his life.

Savate
Savate also known as French boxing, French kickboxing or French footfighting, is a French martial art that uses the hands and feet as weapons combining elements of western boxing with graceful kicking techniques. Only foot kicks are allowed unlike some systems such as Muay Thai, Silat and Yaw-Yan, which allow the use of the knees or shins. Savate is a French word for “old shoe”. Savate is one of the few styles of kickboxing in which the fighters habitually wear shoes. Savate takes its name from the French for “old shoe” (heavy footwear, especially the boots used by French military and sailors.

In the south, especially in the port of Marseille, sailors developed a fighting style involving high kicks and open-handed slaps. It is conjectured that this kicking style was developed in this way to allow the fighter to use a hand to hold onto something for balance on a rocking ship’s deck, and that the kicks and slaps were used on land to avoid the legal penalties for using a closed fist, which was considered a deadly weapon under the law.

Kickboxing

Kickboxing is a group of stand-up combat sports based on kicking and punching, historically developed from Karate, Muay Thai, Khmer Boxing, and Western boxing.

Japanese kickboxing originated in the 1960s, with competitions held since then.[6][7] American kickboxing originated in the 1970s and was brought to prominence in September 1974, when the Professional Karate Association (PKA) held the first World Championships. Historically, kickboxing can be considered a hybrid martial art formed from the combination of elements of various traditional styles. This approach became increasingly popular since the 1970s, and since the 1990s, kickboxing has contributed to the emergence of mixed martial arts via further hybridization with ground fighting techniques from Brazilian jiu-jitsu and folk wrestling.

Senior Red Belt requirements:

1st Guep

1- Techniques .
Legs
Shin Kicks 3 Directional Kicks

Hands
1 Inch Punch

Blocking
Inverted Arch and Upward Block

Concepts
Head-butting: How to, its benefits, appropriateness and drawbacks.
Group Sparring
Kick Catch- (Hook Leg, Same Side Hook Kick to Leg, Forward Lean- For Back Fall Use Lead Hook)

Clinching fundamentals
Bottle Opener- (Arm around Neck, Lock Hand, Step into Low Stance)
Elbow Lock- (Wrap Arm up and Over- Swirl Arm)

Combinations
Your own Combinations should be easy to demonstrate by this time, utilizing at least 3 of the previous sets of techniques together in succession.

2- Form .

Hwa Rang
Hwarang or Flowering Knights, were an elite group of male youth in the ancient Korean Kingdom Silla.
The king of Silla, “concerned about the strengthening of the country … again issued a decree and chose boys from good families who were of good morals and renamed them hwarang.”
The youths who were chosen by the Silla Kingdom became the knights and warriors for the Silla Dynasty within the age of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.
A close relationship did exist between the Hwarang and Buddhism because Buddhism was accepted as a state religion within Silla. The Buddhist monks were often mentors for the Hwarang in both physical and spiritual ways. The Hwarang would seek the teachings of these Buddhist monks because they knew that the martial arts practiced by these Buddhist monks were a source through which they could strengthen themselves for greater success in the future and for the benefit of the Silla Kingdom.
The monks would train themselves in physical fitness exercises through self-defense techniques, countering the weakening effects of long-term meditation and enabling them to protect themselves from bandits and robbers who tried to steal the donations and charities that were collected by the monks on their pilgrimages.
Both the Buddhist monks and the Hwarang would go on journeys to famous mountains to heighten their training and would seek encounters with supernatural beings for protection and the success of the Silla Kingdom.
Won Gwang Beop Sa was a Buddhist monk who was asked by the Hwarang to teach them ways to develop ambition, bravery, and honor, in order to protect the Silla Kingdom from the other kingdoms inhabiting the peninsula.
Won Gwang trained these youths in three areas
1.) Self-defense capabilities
2.) Self-confidence
3.) Self-control

Won Gwang taught the youths of the Hwarang to become warriors who could defend their beliefs with martial arts, to be confident in their actions, and to control themselves and their surroundings. He also gave them martial arts techniques that combined the secret Buddhist monk’s physical exercises, along with Taek Kyeon, the art of foot fighting that existed at that time.
Won Gwang also proposed 5 principles or guidelines that were later called the Five Precepts for Secular Life which became a list of ethics that the Hwarang could embrace.
1.) Show allegiance to one’s sovereign.
2.) Treat one’s parents with respect and devotion.
3.) Exhibit trust and sincerity amongst friends.
4.) Never retreat in battle.
5.) Exercise discretion when taking a life.

These commandments and teachings were followed by the Hwarang to protect Silla from rivaling kingdoms and helped unify the nation of Ancient Korea until the fall of the Silla Kingdom.
With the consolidation and expansion of Silla and intensification of military rivalries among the Three Kingdoms in the 6th century, the Silla court took a more active interest in the Hwarang. Hwarang groups were usually led by a youth of aristocratic standing, and the state appointed a high-ranking official to oversee the organization.
The Hwarang in the later 6th and 7th centuries trained in horsemanship, swordsmanship, archery, javelin and stone throwing, polo, and ladder-climbing. By the seventh century the organization had grown greatly in prestige and numbered several hundred bands.
“…able ministers and loyal subjects are chosen from them, and good generals and brave soldiers are born therefrom.”
The Hwarang were greatly influenced by Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist ideals.

The 29 movements refer to the 29th infantry division, where Taekwon Do developed into maturity.
Diagram and number of movements: Hwa Rang has 29 movements and its diagram is a capital “I”.

3- Self-defense .

Punching from the Guard Utilizing Kicks while on the ground

4- Breaking .

Legs Spinning Hook Kick Hands-

5- Knowledge .

1-sanctity of life
Miyamoto Musashi 1584 – June 13, 1645 was an expert Japanese swordsman and rōnin. Musashi, as he was often simply known, became renowned through stories of his excellent and unique double-bladed swordsmanship and undefeated record in his 60 duels He was the founder of the Hyōhō Niten Ichi-ryū or Niten-ryū style of swordsmanship and in his final years authored The Book of Five Rings a book on strategy, tactics, and philosophy.
When Musashi was seven years old, the boy was raised by his uncles educated him in Buddhism and basic skills such as writing and reading. He was apparently trained by Munisai in the sword, and in the family art of the jutte. This training did not last for a very long time, as in 1589, Munisai was ordered by Shinmen Sokan to kill Munisai’s student, Honiden Gekinosuke. The Honiden family was displeased, and so Munisai was forced to move.
Musashi contracted eczema in his infancy, and this adversely affected his appearance. Another story claims that he never took a bath because he did not want to be surprised unarmed.
I have trained in the way of strategy since my youth, and at the age of thirteen I fought a duel for the first time. My opponent was called Arima Kihei, a sword adept of the Shinto ryū, and I defeated him. At the age of sixteen I defeated a powerful adept by the name of Akiyama, who came from Tajima Province. At the age of twenty-one I went up to Kyōtō and fought duels with several adepts of the sword from famous schools, but I never lost.
Musashi states that his first successful duel was at the age of thirteen, He spent his time traveling and engaging in duels,
In 1600, a war began between the Toyotomi and Tokugawa clans. Battle of Sekigahara. Musashi apparently fought on the side of the Toyotomi’s “Army of the West”

Filipino martial arts
Yaw-Yan
Yaw-Yan, also called Sayaw ng Kamatayan or “Dance of Death” is a Filipino style of Kickboxing developed by Napoleon A. Fernandez “Master Nap” and based on older Filipino martial arts. Since its inception in the 1970s, it has dominated the kickboxing scene in the Philippines and has proven very effective against other stand-up fighting arts.
Yaw-Yan closely resembles Muay Thai, but differs in the hip-torquing motion as well as the downward-cutting nature of its kicks, and the emphasis on delivering attacks from long range (while Muay Thai focuses more on clinching).
“Master Nap” had a background in various martial arts such as Jeet Kune Do, Karate, Eskrima, Aikido, and Judo. He is said to have modified all the martial art forms that he studied and fused them to create a martial art form that is deadly to opponents and “advantageous to the build of Filipinos”. Yaw Yan was introduced to the public in 1972. It includes elements of striking, takedowns, grappling, stick and knife fighting, and additional kickboxing material.
The forearm strikes, elbows, punches, dominating palms, and hand movements are empty-hand translations of the bladed weapons. There are 12 “bolo punches” which were patterned from traditional Filipino martial art of eskrima.

Arnis
Arnis, also known as Eskrima and Kali, is the national sport and martial art of the Philippines. The three are roughly interchangeable umbrella terms for the traditional martial arts of the Philippines (“Filipino Martial Arts,” or FMA) that emphasize weapon-based fighting with sticks, knives, bladed weapons and various improvised weapons.
Also known as Estoque (Spanish for rapier), Estocada (Spanish for thrust or stab) and Garrote (Spanish for club).
The indigenous martial art that the Spanish encountered in 1610 was not yet called “arnis” at that time. During those times, this martial art was known as Paccalicali.
Arnis also includes hand-to-hand combat, joint locks, grappling and weapon disarming techniques. Although in general, emphasis is put on weapons for these arts, some systems put empty hands as the primary focus and some old school systems do not teach weapons at all.
Arnis comes from arnés, Old Spanish for ‘armor’ (harness is an archaic English term for armor, which comes from the same roots as the Spanish term). It is said to derive from the armor costumes used in Moro-moro stage plays where actors fought mock battles using wooden swords
Eskrima (also spelled Escrima) is a Filipinization of the Spanish word for fencing, esgrima. Their cognate in French is escrime and is related to the English term ‘skirmish’.
Kali has multiple theories on its origin stick-fencing dig and to stab Wisdom of Kali and way of the blade. Most likely, Kali derives from the pre-Hispanic Filipino term for blades and fencing, Calis, documented by Ferdinand Magellan’s expedition chronicler Antonio Pigafetta during their journey through the Visayas.
As Arnis was an art usually practiced by the peasant or commoner class (as opposed to nobility or warrior classes), most practitioners lacked the scholarly education to create any kind of written record. While the same can be said of many martial arts, this is especially true for Arnis because almost all of its history is anecdotal, oral or promotional. The origin of Arnis can be traced back to native fighting techniques during conflicts among the various Prehispanic Filipino tribes or kingdoms, though the current form has Spanish influence from old fencing which originated in Spain in the 15th century. It has other influences as well, as settlers and traders travelling through the Malay Archipelago brought the influence of silat as well as Chinese, Arab and Indian martial arts. Some of the population still practice localized Chinese fighting methods known as kuntaw.
When the Spaniards first arrived in the Philippines, they already observed weapons-based martial arts practiced by the natives, which may or may not be related to present-day Arnis. The earliest written records of Filipino culture and life, including martial arts, comes from the first Spanish explorers. Some early expeditions fought native tribesmen armed with sticks and knives.
In 1521, Ferdinand Magellan was killed in Cebu at the Battle of Mactan by the forces of Datu Lapu-Lapu, the chief of Mactan. Some Arnisadors hold that Lapu-Lapu’s men killed Magellan in a sword-fight, though historical evidence proves otherwise. The only eyewitness account of the battle by chronicler Antonio Pigafetta tells that he was stabbed in the face and the arm with spears and overwhelmed with multiple warriors who hacked and stabbed at him

 

Black Belt requirements:

*Proficiency of all material covered in previous levels.

1. Techniques: inverted archand upward block, single jumping twin front kick, reverse jumping right/left front kick, 3 directional kicks

2. Hyung: Chung Mu

3. Self defense: punching from mount.

4. Breaking: Target drills: single jumping twin front kick, 360 hook, 360 back.

5. Knowledge:
Meaning of Choong Moo hyung: Choong Moo was the name given to the great Admiral Yi Soon-Sin of the Yi Dynasty. He was reputed to have invented the first armored battleship (Kobukson) in 1592, which is said to be the precursor of the present day submarine. This pattern ends with a left hand attack to symbolize his regrettable death. He was noted for his unrestrained loyalty to the king.
Choong Moo diagram and number of movements: Choong Moo has 30 movements and its diagram is a capital “I”.
The five judging criteria for hyungs: stance, technique, power, concentration, chamber.